Monday, February 22, 2010

We turned out Hologram Universe Giants

GEO600 experiment on the outskirts of Hanover, Germany, not so attractive people. Visible from the outside just a box-shaped beds in one corner of the farm fields, which are connected by two metal plates covered ditch the tracer is placed beneath the 600 meters in length.

Over the last seven years, the German-made devices that track the gravitational waves from objects space is very strong, such as neutron stars and black holes.


GEO600 so far have not detected any gravity waves, but the technology was inadvertently produced significant discoveries in physics in the last half century.

For several months, said Marcus chown from New Scientist, GEO600 team distracted by the noise is not clear that they were recorded by the detector. Then, unexpectedly, a researcher get answers, and even has estimated that sound before scientists detect it.

According to Craig Hogan, a physicist from Fermilab physics laboratory in Batavia, Illinois, United States, GEO600 has reached the fundamental limits of space and time - the point at which space-time is no longer shaped like a continuum flow Albert Einstein described it dissolves into 'beads' as small point magnified by a microscope.

"Looks like GEO600 was hit by a wave of microscopic quantum space and time," said Hogan.

Hogan, the newly appointed Director for the Center for Particle Astrophysics at Fermilab, and even more powerful theorized, "If the sound is detected CEO600 as I explained, we all live in the middle of a giant cosmic hologram."

Thought Hogan looks absurd, but it is the best understanding of black holes and is the foundation of a reasonable theory. The idea was very helpful even scientists in explaining how the universe works at the most fundamental level.

This analogy, the hologram that you find on your credit card or ATM card attached to a plastic two-dimensional film. Once exposed to light, the hologram image will display three-dimensional (3D).

In 1990, Leonard Susskind and Nobel laureate scientists  Hooft enforcement Gerard't same principle in the universe. Observations of everyday people can be a holographic image of the physical processes in the two-dimensional space.

Holographic principle is challenging our common sense. Imagine, you wake up, brush teeth, and reading this article because something happened in the limits of this universe. No one knows if we truly live in a hologram, even though the experts have a logical reason that many aspects of the holographic principle is reasonable.

Suskind ideas and Gerard't Hooft appear motivated by the work of Jacob Bekenstein of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel and the Stephen Hawking of Cambridge University, about the Black Hole.

Mid-1970s, Hawking proved that black holes are not completely 'black or dark', instead of emitting radiation that causes it to disappear.

Hawking remains a puzzle because it did not disclose what they contain black holes.

When black holes disappear, all the information about the phenomenon that comes from dying stars that were lost, contrary to previous theories that believe that the information can not be destroyed. This is the paradox known as the Black Hole.

Bekenstein's work paved the way for this to explain that paradox. He discovered, the entropy of black holes (a quantitative measure of the heat transfer system that does not irregular), was equal to the information it contains and is proportional to surface area horizon.

This is the veil that covers the theoretical black holes, while indicating nothing can be explained by material or light black holes sucked.

Since then, the scientists showed that microscopic quantum waves in the horizon (layer around black holes in which all objects are sucked into the cross) can represent the information in black holes so no information is destroyed when a mysterious black holes disappear.

This means that 3D information about the star can die completely encoded in the Black Hole horizon arising from the star, not entirely like 3D image of an object is encoded in two-dimensional hologram.

Susskind and Hofft expand our view of the universe as a whole at the level that this universe has a horizon line, the boundary line where the light can not reach the earth in 13.7 billion years old.

Moreover, research scientists, especially Juan Maldacena of the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, has ensured that the theory is true. Maldacena showed that the physics in the universe is hypothetical as the five dimensions are the same as the physics of four-dimensional boundary.

According to Hogan, holographic principles to radically change our picture of space and time. The theorists of physics has long believed that quantum effects would cause the space and time fluctuate wildly.

At that magnification, the structure of space and time into small particles that hundreds of billion-billion times smaller than a proton.

The amount of development that the structure is known as Planck's Constant, 10-35 meters long and far beyond the reach of any experiment that no one dared to dream that the grains of space and time may be lost.

Hogan finally realizing a holographic principle that has changed many things. If space and time holograms rough analogy, then you can imagine the universe as a space outside layer bonded to Planck layers, each storing information.

Holographic principle says, the amount of information that should be taped out in accordance with the amount of information contained in the volume of the universe. Then, how can the volume of the universe could be far greater than the outer layer?

Hogan realized, contents and limits the volume of the universe have the same amount of information, then space should be built outside of the grains are larger than the Planck scale, "Or, another way, a holographic universe was vague," he said.

This is good news for those who attempt to examine the smallest unit of space and time. "Contrary to the previous estimates, placing a holographic universe quantum structures have microscopic experiments range," explained Hogan.

So, while the Planck's constant is too small to be studied, holographic projections that the grains can be larger, about 10-16 meters. "If you live in a hologram, you can explain it to measure levels blur."

When Hogan was aware of this for the first time, he was not sure if there are tests that can calculate the levels of fuzziness of the time. That's when GEO600 appeared.

Trackers such as GEO600 gravitational wave is a remarkable tool sensitive. Through the GEO600 gravitational wave will in turn stretches the space in one direction, and wrung them elsewhere.

To calculate, GEO600 team fired a laser beam through a half-silver mirror called breaker rays. This mirror divides light into two beams, which pass along the arms straight 600 meters to the instrument beam breaker and bounce back.

Ray reflections were merged in breaker rays and create patterns and union between light dark areas where light waves reinforce each other, and vice versa. Every shift of position in the territories it clear that the relative lengths of the arms has changed.

"The key is to test it is very sensitive to changes in the instrument arm's length much shorter than the diameter of a proton," added Hogan.
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